Austenite formation of steel-3401 subjected to rapid cooling process

R. Fadhila, A. G. Jaharah, M. Z. Omar, C. H.C. Haron, M. J. Ghazali, Azwar Manaf, C. H. Azhari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Hadfield's austenitic manganese steel is still commonly used for railroad components such as frogs and crossings and also for rock-handling materials. This material contains approximately 1.2% carbon and 12 to 14% Mn. This paper presents the microstructural development of the austenitic manganese steel-3401 due to different heating regimes followed by rapid cooling process. The material is heated to 1050°C followed by a rapid cooling process which caused the solid solution of the carbides to be precipitated in the grain of the pure austenite phase. The tempering temperature is set between 400°C to 550°C at 50° C interval. The microstructural examination of the samples showed that the formation of austenite begins by precipitation of iron and manganese carbides at the grain boundaries, progressively followed by the appearance of a new constituent which later extended to the interior of the grains. The new phase formation increased with increasing temperature, showing temperature dependence of formation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)150-153
Number of pages4
JournalInternational Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2007


  • Austenitic manganese steel-3401
  • Microstructural mapping
  • Rapid cooling


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