Asymptomatic Cryptosporidiosis in Children Living with HIV

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Children living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk of opportunistic Cryptosporidium infection. Cryptosporidium usually causes chronic diarrhea that may lead to impaired growth and cognitive function in children. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in children, describe its clinical characteristics, and the risk factors. A cross-sectional study involving children aged 6 months to 18 years old with confirmed HIV infection was carried out in Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta. Diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis was made by PCR of 18S rRNA after being screened by microscopic examination. The clinical characteristics and risk factors were obtained from medical records and structured questionnaires. A total of 52 participants were included in the final analysis. The prevalence of cryptosporidiosis was 42.3%. Approximately 68% of the HIV children with cryptosporidiosis were asymptomatic, while those who reported symptoms showed weight loss and diarrhea. Independent risk factors of cryptosporidiosis were diarrhea (AOR 6.5; 95% CI 1.16–36.67), well water as drinking water source (AOR 6.7; 95% CI 1.83–24.93), and drink untreated water (AOR 5.8; 95% CI 1.04–32.64). A high prevalence of asymptomatic cryptosporidiosis was observed among children with HIV infection and PCR screening of Cryptosporidium in high-risk children is advisable.

Original languageEnglish
Article number352
JournalTropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022


  • children
  • drinking water
  • HIV
  • opportunistic infection


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