HIV, hepatitis B and C, and syphilis share common transmission routes of which primarily unsafe sexual contact and injecting drug use are important. Impulsivity is a major factor contributing to this transmission risk behavior; however comprehensive studies within female, prison, and Asian populations are scarce. This cross-sectional study aims to delineate the contributions of different aspects of impulsivity to risk behavior, among female inmates living in a prison in Jakarta (N = 214). The relationships between various aspects of impulsivity, risk behaviors and seropositivity were tested using analyses of variance and logistic regression analyses. Motor impulsivity was related to alcohol use, reward-related impulsivity to drug use, and cognitive/goal-directed impulsivity to sexual risk behavior. Finally, goal-directed impulsivity was also directly associated with seropositivity. Specific aspects of impulsivity are associated with different types of risk behavior in Indonesian female prisoners, which can be relevant for future studies on infection prevention strategies for such a population.