Association of body mass index with immune recovery, virological failure and cardiovascular disease risk among people living with HIV

the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD) of IeDEA Asia-Pacific

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: We conducted a longitudinal cohort analysis to evaluate the association of pre-treatment body mass index (BMI) with CD4 recovery, virological failure (VF) and cardiovascular risk disease (CVD) markers among people living with HIV (PLHIV). METHODS: Participants who were enrolled between January 2003 and March 2019 in a regional Asia HIV cohort with weight and height measurements prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation were included. Factors associated with mean CD4 increase were analysed using repeated-measures linear regression. Time to first VF after 6 months on ART and time to first development of CVD risk markers were analysed using Cox regression models. Sensitivity analyses were done adjusting for Asian BMI thresholds. RESULTS: Of 4993 PLHIV (66% male), 62% had pre-treatment BMI in the normal range (18.5-25.0 kg/m2 ), while 26%, 10% and 2% were underweight (< 18.5 kg/m2 ), overweight (25-30 kg/m2) and obese (> 30 kg/m2 ), respectively. Both higher baseline and time-updated BMI were associated with larger CD4 gains compared with normal BMI. After adjusting for Asian BMI thresholds, higher baseline BMIs of 23-27.5 and > 27.5 kg/m2 were associated with larger CD4 increases of 15.6 cells/µL [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.9-28.3] and 28.8 cells/µL (95% CI: 6.6-50.9), respectively, compared with normal BMI (18.5-23 kg/m2 ). PLHIV with BMIs of 25-30 and > 30 kg/m2 were 1.27 times (95% CI: 1.10-1.47) and 1.61 times (95% CI: 1.13-2.24) more likely to develop CVD risk factors. No relationship between pre-treatment BMI and VF was observed. CONCLUSIONS: High pre-treatment BMI was associated with better immune reconstitution and CVD risk factor development in an Asian PLHIV cohort.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)294-306
Number of pages13
JournalHIV Medicine
Volume22
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2021

Keywords

  • body mass index
  • cardiovascular risks
  • HIV
  • immune recovery
  • virological response

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