Approaches and fiscal space generation for social protection floor goals: An overview

Mukul G. Asher, Fauziah, Astrid Dita

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


In September 2015, the United Nations was able to achieve consensus to formally launch the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (ASD). There has been increasing acceptance in most countries of the need to make social protection policies, programs, and schemes consistent with high, sustainable, and broad-based economic growth, while advancing development goals such as gender equality, and more equitable access to public amenities and services. Translating the above acceptance into an integrated set of policies, even for a narrow area such as social protection, will however continue to be a major challenge. Three different conceptual areas are discussed. First, a sub-section on Social Protection Floor (SPF) provides a brief overview of how the SPF is defined in the literature, the distinction between SPF as an instrument and as an outcome to be achieved, as well as a brief discussion of whether the SPF goals should be mandated or should be in approached in the context of each specific country. As the UN specifically adopted SDGs to replace MDGs, it is useful to briefly provide an overview of them. The second sub-section is on the Social Protection Indicator (SPI). SPI has been developed by the Asian Development Bank (ADB). This sub-section briefly explains the methodology used in constructing the SPI, including its strengths and limitations. The appropriate use of the SPI for social protection policies is also discussed. The final sub-section discusses a Framework for Generating Fiscal Space. It focuses on broad-based economic growth, conventional and unconventional revenues, and expenditure management as potential avenues to generate fiscal space. This is linked to the East Asian country studies. It should be stressed that the framework is used to organise thinking about an issue in a context-specific manner. It should not be regarded as a blueprint to be followed. Insufficient recognition of this distinction could lead to inappropriate policy advice and initiatives.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSocial Protection Goals in East Asia
Subtitle of host publicationStrategies and Methods to Generate Fiscal Space
PublisherTaylor and Francis
Number of pages22
ISBN (Electronic)9781351867788
ISBN (Print)9781138292963
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2018


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