Widajanti Wibowo, Wahyudi Priyono Suwarso, Triesye Utari, Henny Purwaningsih

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


An Application of heterogenous catalysis reaction for synthesis of synthetic vanillin (3-hydroxy-2- methoxybenzaldehyde) from eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) of clove oil. It has been already known, that heterogeneous catalysts have more advantages compared to homogeneous catalysts. This research tried to utilize heterogeneous catalysts for an alternative reaction on synthesis of vanillin from eugenol of clove stem oil. This synthesis needs two steps reactions, isomerization reaction of eugenol to produce isoeugenol and oxidation reaction of isoeugenol to produce vanillin. Two types catalysts were used: (1) solid superbase, which was used on eugenol isomerization, and (2) phase transfer catalyst [18]-crown ether-6, which was used on oxidation of isoeugenol. Solid superbase catalyst was prepared using γ- and η-alumina, treated with sodium hydroxide and sodium metal. Alumina was extracted from kaolin from Belitung island by acid process, and the yield of aluminas were 9.0% γ-Al2O3 and 10.28% η-Al2O3. Heterogeneous catalysis study on eugenol isomerization showed that the reaction could proceed at low temperature. The eugenol isomerization reaction conditions were : temperature 10ºC, reaction time 9 hours, clove stem oil 25 mmol, and solid catalyst superbase γ Al2O3/NaOH/Na 2 g. The result of products conversion were 64.42% transisoeugenol and 6.11% cis-isoeugenol. This study included the comparison activities study of three solid superbase catalysts : γ-Al2O3/NaOH/Na, η-Al2O3/NaOH/Na, and γ-Al2O3 (E.Merck)/NaOH/Na, which showed that γ-Al2O3/NaOH/Na had better activity than those two latter solid superbase catalysts. Study on isoeugenol oxidation reaction using KMnO4 as an oxidazing agent and phase transfer catalyst [18]-crown ether-6, gave the indication that vanillin was produced mixed with other compounds. The yield of vanillin in acid medium (pH 2) was 0.021%, in neutral medium (pH 7) was 0.028% and in basic medium (pH 9) was 0.015%.
Original languageIndonesian
JournalMAKARA of Science Series
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2002

Cite this