Antibody responses to filarial infective larvae are not dominated by the IgG4 isotype

Agnes Kurniawan, Erliyani Sartono, Felix Partono, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Rick M. Maizels

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32 Citations (Scopus)


The humoral immune response in humans to filarial parasites is generally dominated by the IgG4 isotype, when measured by ELISA against somatic adult worm extract. In contrast, as we report here, antibodies reactive to somatic extracts of infective larvae are more equally represented by IgG1 and IgG4. Moreover, binding to surface exposed epitopes in immunofluorescence on larval stages is mediated foremost by IgG1 and IgM, secondarily by IgG2 and IgG3, and very little by IgG4. Both anti-L3 surface and somatic antibodies are strongest in elephantiasis patients, and tend to increase with age. Antibody to the L3 surface is also present in most microfilaraemic individuals who bear no detectable antibodies to the surface of the microfilarial stage. These results demonstrate that a stage- and isotype-specific response is mounted to the L3 surface which should be considered as a possible mediator of concomitant immunity in filariasis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9-17
Number of pages9
JournalParasite Immunology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1998


  • Filariasis
  • Immunofluorescence
  • Immunoglobulins
  • Nematodes
  • Surface antigens


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