Antibacterial effect of xanthorrhizol (Curcuma xanthorrhiza roxb.) against the biofilm of fusobacterium nucleatum

Maida Fitri, Kamizar Nazar, Ratna Meidyawati, Reza Azmi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: Endodontic infections are treated with a root canal; one of the stages involves using an irrigation solution to eliminate microorganisms. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is an irrigation solution used to eliminate Fusobacterium nucleatum, the common cause of primary endodontic infections. However, this material is synthetic and can cause side effects and inflammation of the periapical tissues. Thus, an irrigation solution, such as xanthorrhizol, which is made of natural ingredients, is required. However, xanthorrhizol’s antibacterial effect against F. nucleatum has never been assessed. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the effect of xanthorrhizol, derived from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb., against F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 biofilm. Methods: The methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay test and colony count test were performed to assess F. nucleatum eradication after exposure to xanthorrhizol at various concentrations (0.5%, 0.75%, 1%, 1.25%, and 1.5%) and 2.5% NaOCl, which was used as positive control. Results: Significant differences were observed in terms of cell viability after treatment with xanthorrhizol at concentrations of 1.25% versus 0.5%, 0.75%, and 1%. The MTT assay test was used to evaluate cell viability in the biofilm and cell metabolism activities. Results showed no significant differences in terms of efficacy between xanthorrhizol at concentrations of 1.25% and 1.5%, which are considered effective against F. nucleatum, and 2.5% NaOCl (p>0.05). Conclusion: The effect of xanthorrhizol at concentrations of 1.25% and 1.5% against F. nucleatum is similar to that of 2.5% NaOCl.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)57-61
Number of pages5
JournalInternational Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics
Issue numberSpecial Issue 2
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2020


  • Antibacterials
  • Biofilm
  • Fusobacterium nucleatum
  • Sodium hypochlorite
  • Xanthorrhizol


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