Antibacterial activity of medicinal plants in Indonesia on Streptococcus pneumoniae

Wisnu Tafroji, Nur Ita Margyaningsih, Miftahuddin Majid Khoeri, Wisiva Tofriska Paramaiswari, Yayah Winarti, Korrie Salsabila, Hanifah Fajri Maharani Putri, Nurjati Chairani Siregar, Amin Soebandrio, Dodi Safari

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5 Citations (Scopus)


Streptococcus pneumoniae is a human pathogenic bacterium able to cause invasive pneumococcal diseases. Some studies have reported medicinal plants having antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria. However, antibacterial studies of medicinal plants against S. pneumoniae remains limited. Therefore, this study aims to describe the antibacterial activity of medicinal plants in Indonesia against S. pneumoniae. Medicinal plants were extracted by maceration with n-hexane, ethanol, ethyl acetate and water. Antibacterial activity was defined by inhibition zone and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Bactericidal activity was measured by culture and time-killing measurement. Methods used to describe the mechanism of action of the strongest extract were done by absorbance at 595 nm, broth culture combined with 1% crystal violet, qRT-PCR targeting lytA, peZT and peZA, and transmission electron microscope to measure bacterial lysis, antibiofilm, LytA and peZAT gene expression, and ultrastructure changes respectively. Among 13 medicinal plants, L. inermis Linn. ethyl acetate extract showed the strongest antibacterial activity against S. pneumoniae with an MIC value of 0,16 mg/ml. Bactericidal activity was observed at 0,16 mg/ml for 1 hour incubation. Lawsonia inermis extract showed some mechanism of actions including bacterial lysis, antibiofilm, and ultrastructure changes such as cell wall disruption, decreasing cell membrane integrity and morphological disorder. Increasing of lytA and decreasing of peZA and peZT expression were also observed after incubation with the extract. In addition, liquid chromatography mass spectrophotometer showed phenolic compounds as the commonest compound in L. inermis ethyl acetate extract. This study describes the strong antibacterial activity of L. inermis with various mechanism of action including ultrastructure changes.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0274174
JournalPloS one
Issue number9 September
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022


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