Anti inflammatory effect of mahkota dewa (Phaleria macrocarpa) leaf extract loaded in chitosan nanoparticles in reducing tumor necrosis factor α expression on colon of dextran sodium sulfat-induced mice

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Objective: Excessive TNF-α production in colon mucosa is known to cause homeostasis disturbance, which then lead to chronic inflammation reaction. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) is a clinical condition caused by the chronic inflammation reaction. The diseases incidence is high globally. TNF-α expression is known to have a key role that connects chronic inflammation and the risk of malignancy. To date, effective drug that maintain IBD remission with mild adverse effect has yet to be found. This study aims to determine whether encapsulation of mahkota dewa leaf extract in chitosan nanoparticles can suppress TNF-α expression. Methods: This study involves 30 samples colon tissue mice from previous study that has been stained using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Included mice were divided into 6 intervention groups: a group without intervention (N); a negative control group which were only given DSS 2% b/v; two groups which were given DSS 2% b/v followed by mahkota dewa leaves extract administration, with dosages of 25 and 12.5 mg, respectively; and two groups which were given DSS 2% b/v followed by chitosan nanoparticle-encapsulated mahkota dewa leaves extract with dosages of 12.5 and 6.25 mg in their drinking water. Results: TNF-α expression index of groups treated with NPMD 12.5 mg and NPMD 6.25 mg shows significant reduction (p<0.05), while the reduction in groups treated with EMD 25 mg and EMD 12.5 mg is not significant (p>0.05), both compared to control group. Conclusion: Low dose mahkota dewa extract loaded in chitosan nanoparticles is able to suppress TNF-α expression in mice colon tissue.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)624-631
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2019



  • Chitosan Nanoparticle
  • Dextran Sodium Sulphate
  • Mahkota Dewa Leaf extract
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor α

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