Anthropometric, biochemical and hormonal profiles of the partially admixed pygmoid group in Rampasasa (Flores, Indonesia)

Aman Pulungan, Attika A. Andarie, Frida Soesanti, Muhammad Ramdhani Yassien, Christiaan De Bruin, Andi Wijaya, Agus0000 0002 3236 0014 Firmansyah, Jan M.0000 0002 1715 5020 Wit

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: We performed a cross-sectional study on anthropometric and laboratory characteristics of inhabitants of Rampasasa (Flores, Indonesia). Adults were categorised according to ancestry into three groups: pygmoid (P/P, offspring of pygmoid parents, n=8), mixed pygmoid (P/N, offspring of pygmoid and non-pygmoid parents, n=12) and non-pygmoid (N/N, n=10). Children (n=28) were P/N. Methods: Measurements included height, weight, sitting height, arm span, head circumference, haematological analysis and serum albumin, calcium, vitamin D, insulinlike growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3). Pubertal stage and bone age was assessed in children. Anthropometric data were expressed as standard deviation score (SDS) for age. IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and IGF-I/ IGFBP-3 ratio were expressed as SDS for age, bone age and pubertal stage. Results: Mean height SDS showed a gradient from P/P (-4.0) via P/N (-3.2) to N/N (-2.3) (-3.4, -3.1 and -2.2 adjusted for age-associated shrinking). Sitting height and head circumference showed similar gradients. Serum IGF-I SDS was similar among groups (approximately -1 SDS). IGFBP-3 SDS tended toward a gradient from P/P (-1.9) via P/N (-1.5) to N/N (-1.1), but IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio was normal in all groups. In P/P and P/N, mean head circumference SDS was >2 SD greater than mean height SDS. Children showed a progressive growth failure and bone age delay, delayed female pubertal onset and an initial low serum IGF-I, normal IGFBP-3 and low IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio. Conclusions: P/P showed proportionate short stature with relative macrocephaly and relatively low IGFBP-3; P/N presented an intermediate pattern. P/N children were progressively short, showed delayed skeletal maturation, delayed puberty in girls and low IGF-I and IGF-I/IGFBP-3.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)547-557
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2021


  • Growth
  • Head circumference
  • IGF-I
  • IGFBP-3
  • Negritos
  • Pygmies
  • Short stature
  • Vitamin D deficiency


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