This chapter discusses the ‘anthropocentrisation’ of political–economic governance in Indonesia through the establishment, expansion and evolution of the modern state. The process began with colonial state-building in the mid-nineteenth century, following efforts by colonial rulers to exploit their colonies more effectively in order to compete in the global market. The creation of a unified national political and economic governance system with rigidly defined territories gradually displaced ecological governance systems of indigenous communities, and Indonesia’s independence led to further institutionalisation of anthropocentric political–economic governance. The authoritarian and developmentalist New Order government (1965–1998) consolidated the power of the state and its control over people and nature, effectively marginalising indigenous communities, despite the formal recognition of Adat Law. State transformation in the age of globalisation, fragmentation, decentralisation and internationalisation of state apparatuses has gradually loosened the grip of the state since the 1980s. Indigenous communities, supported by transnational advocacy networks, used this opportunity to create a governance space for themselves. While these initiatives have been partially successful, the loosening grip of the state does not mean the reversal of anthropocentrisation.
|Title of host publication||Non-Human Nature in World Politics |
|Subtitle of host publication||Theory and Practice|
|Editors||Joana Castro Pereira, Andre Saramago|
|Publication status||Published - 2020|
|Name||Frontiers in International Relations|
- Political Economy
- Indigenous communities