Analysis of Modifiable, Non-Modifiable, and Physiological Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Diseases in Indonesia: Evidence from the 2018 Indonesian Basic Health Research

Hidayat Arifin, Kuei Ru Chou, Kusman Ibrahim, Siti Ulfah Rifa’Atul Fitri, Rifky Octavia Pradipta, Yohanes Andy Rias, Nikson Sitorus, Bayu Satria Wiratama, Agus Setiawan, Setyowati Setyowati, Heri Kuswanto, Devi Mediarti, Rosnani Rosnani, Rumentalia Sulistini, Tuti Pahria

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Purpose: Indonesia is facing an increasing occurrence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) every year. We assessed the modifi-able, non-modifiable, and physiological risk factors of NCDs among the Indonesian population. Methods: Secondary data was analyzed from the 2018 Indonesian basic health research (RISKESDAS). The national survey included participants aged 15–54 years and obtained 514,351 responses. Linear systematic two-stage sampling was conducted by RISKESDAS. Furthermore, chi-square and binary logistic regression were utilized to explore the determinant of NCDs with a significance level of 95%. Results: We found that almost 10% respondents in Indonesia had NCDs. We observed that depression has a higher odd (aOR: 2.343; 95% CI: 2.235–2.456) contributed to NCDs and followed other factors such as no education (aOR: 1.049; 95% CI: 1.007–1.092), passive smoking (aOR: 0.910; 95% CI: 0.878–0.942), fatty food (aOR: 1.050; 95% CI: 1.029–1.073), burnt food (aOR: 1.033; 95% CI: 1.005–1.062), food with preservatives (aOR: 1.038; 95% CI: 1.002–1.075), seasoned food (aOR: 1.057; 95% CI: 1.030–1.084), soft drinks (aOR: 1.112; 95% CI: 1.057–1.169), living in an urban area (aOR: 1.143; 95% CI: 1.119–1.168), living in central Indonesia (1.243; 95% CI: 1.187–1.302), being female (aOR: 1.235; 95% CI: 1.177–1.25), and obese (aOR: 1.787; 95% CI: 1.686–1.893). Conversely, people in Indonesia who undertook vigorous activity (aOR: 0.892; 95% CI: 0.864–0.921), had employment (aOR: 0.814; 95% CI: 0.796–0.834), had access to improved sources of drinking water (aOR: 0.910; 95% CI: 0.878–0.942), and were aged 35–44 years (aOR: 0.457; 95% CI: 0.446–0.467) were less likely to develop NCDs. Conclusion: Modifiable, non-modifiable, and physiological risk factors have a significant influence on NCDs in Indonesia. This finding can be valuable information for Indonesian Government to arrange a cross-collaboration between government, healthcare workers, and society through advocacy, partnership, health promotion, early detection, and management of NCDs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2203-2221
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
Volume15
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Keywords

  • Indonesia
  • NCDs
  • non-communicable diseases
  • RISKESDAS

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