Analysis of behavior in the use of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle in the tropics

Ghany Heryana, D. A. Sumarsono, Mohammad Adhitya, Rolan Siregar, Nazaruddin, Fuad Zainuri, Sonki Prasetya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


This research aims to determine the pattern of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) usage and fuel consumption for the Jakarta metropolitan area, which includes the cities of Depok, Bogor, Tangerang, Bekasi, and Jakarta itself. Tests were carried out for approximately three months, with regular use. Other types of vehicles for comparison are the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) units. Fuel consumption data and vehicle usage patterns are acquired from data loggers. Economic studies are carried out in a simulation that involves the price of a vehicle, a battery, maintenance costs, and fuel prices. The results show that the best PHEV fuel consumption is for the range of 55–80 km, which is 35–40 km/liter. When compared with HEV, PHEV fuel consumption is 30 % more efficient. HEV’s best fuel consumption is 22 km/liter. The ICE is far behind with 11 km/liter. However, looking at the economic side, it can be concluded that the price of PHEV is still challenging to reach for the middle class. PHEV is still classified as a luxury car for Indonesia. Assuming the amount of fuel is IDR 9,850/liter, and the vehicle service life is set at ten years, the energy cost for PHEV is around IDR 4,400–IDR 6,000/km. It is higher compare with the energy cost for a conventional car that is around IDR 3,400–IDR 3,900/km. PHEV buyers must receive incentive support from the government, not only at the time of purchase (zero tax) but also for maintenance costs and battery replacement. Indonesia has long experience in manufacturing ICE vehicles. Opening an electric vehicle industry is a strategic solution to reduce the price of these vehicles. The import tax for vehicles in Indonesia is quite high.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)97-105
Number of pages9
JournalEUREKA, Physics and Engineering
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Electric Vehicle
  • HEV
  • Hybrid Electric Vehicle
  • Internal Combustion Engine
  • PHEV
  • Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle
  • Power Consumption


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