Analysing implications of visibility for crime occurrence in low income vertical rental-housing complex

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This study analyses the correlation between visibility level and crime occurrence inside a particular vertical rental-housing complex. The basic concept of living free from crime as explained by Newman in Defensible Space (1973) is ex-plored with the main emphasis on residents gaining control over their living envi-ronment. This concept has been developed into a strategy called ‘crime prevention through environmental design’ (CPTED), which also considers the importance of not only physical design but also social development within the building. Visibility has become a central focus of living free from crime as it enables people to gain control over their environment. A case study of visibility levels was conducted in Jatinegara Barat Vertical Rental-Housing Complex, Indonesia. Residents in this housing complex are low-income people. They have adapted over time as the current housing type (vertical) differs from their previous housing type (hori-zontal). An analysis of visibility using a VGA with DepthmapX was conducted to provide specific data regarding visibility levels inside the building. The visibility graph identified a place that was vulnerable to crime occurrence inside the building because of its low visibility caused by its spatial configuration. In addition, some areas’ visibility levels were defined not only by their physical properties but also by their residents’ living habits. Further studies are required to analyse social background features when interpreting similar spaces because of their effect on visibility level in various ways.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)79-88
Number of pages10
JournalA/Z ITU Journal of the Faculty of Architecture
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2020


  • Crime occurrence
  • Defensible space
  • Low income people
  • Vertical housing
  • Visibility


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