Analysing 11 years of incidence trends, clinicopathological characteristics, and forecasts of colorectal cancer in young and old patients: a retrospective cross-sectional study in an Indonesian national referral hospital

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Abstract

Objective To obtain annual incidence trends, understand clinicopathological characteristics, and forecast the future burden of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Indonesia. Design 11-year retrospective cross-sectional study. Setting A national referral hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia. Participants Data from 1584 eligible cases were recorded for trends and forecasting analyses; 433 samples were analysed to determine clinicopathological differences between young (<50 years) and old (≥50 years) patients. Methods Trend analyses were done using Joinpoint software, expressed in annual percentage change (APC), and a regression analysis was executed to generate a forecasting model. Patients' characteristics were compared using χ 2 or non-parametric tests. Main outcomes Analysis of trends, forecasting model, and clinicopathological features between the age groups. Results A significant increase in APC was observed among old patients (+2.38%) for CRC cases. Colon cancer increased remarkably (+9.24%) among young patients; rectal cancer trends were either stable or declining. The trend for right-sided CRC increased in the general population (+6.52%) and old patients (+6.57%), while the trend for left-sided CRC was stable. These cases are expected to be a significant health burden within the next 10 years. Patients had a mean age of 53.17±13.94, 38.1% were young, and the sex ratio was 1.21. Prominent characteristics were left-sided CRC, tumour size ≥5 cm, exophytic growth, adenocarcinoma, histologically low grade, pT3, pN0, inadequately dissected lymph nodes (LNs), LN ratio <0.05, no distant metastasis, early-stage cancer, no lymphovascular invasion, and no perineural invasion (PNI). Distinct features between young and old patients were found in the histological subtype, number of dissected LN, and PNI of the tumour. Conclusions Epidemiological trends and forecasting analyses of CRC cases in Indonesian patients showed an enormous increase in colon cancer in young patients, a particularly concerning trend. Additionally, young patients exhibited particular clinicopathological characteristics that contributed to disease severity.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere060839
JournalBMJ open
Volume12
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 7 Sep 2022

Keywords

  • Colorectal surgery
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY
  • Gastrointestinal tumours
  • ONCOLOGY
  • PATHOLOGY

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