An Electrochemical Sensor of Theophylline on a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode Modified with Nickel Nanoparticles

Prastika Krisma Jiwanti, Anis Puspita Sari, Siti Wafiroh, Yeni Wahyuni Hartati, Jarnuzi Gunlazuardi, Yulia M.T.A. Putri, Takeshi Kondo, Qonita Kurnia Anjani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Theophylline is a drug with a narrow therapeutic range. Electrochemical sensors are a potentially effective method for detecting theophylline concentration to prevent toxicity. In this work, a simple modification of a boron-doped diamond electrode using nickel nanoparticles was successfully performed for a theophylline electrochemical sensor. The modified electrode was characterized using a scanning electron microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Square wave voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry methods were used to study the electrochemical behavior of theophylline. The modified nickel nanoparticles on the boron-doped diamond electrode exhibited an electrochemically active surface area of 0.0081 cm2, which is larger than the unmodified boron-doped diamond’s area of 0.0011 cm2. This modified electrode demonstrated a low limit of detection of 2.79 µM within the linear concentration range from 30 to 100 µM. Moreover, the modified boron-doped diamond electrode also showed selective properties against D-glucose, ammonium sulfate, and urea. In the real sample analysis using artificial urine, the boron-doped diamond electrode with nickel nanoparticle modifications achieved a %recovery of 105.10%, with a good precision of less than 5%. The results of this work indicate that the developed method using nickel nanoparticles on a boron-doped diamond electrode is promising for the determination of theophylline.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8597
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023


  • boron-doped diamond
  • electrochemical sensing
  • human health
  • nickel nanoparticles
  • theophylline


Dive into the research topics of 'An Electrochemical Sensor of Theophylline on a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode Modified with Nickel Nanoparticles'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this