Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Allelic Frequency and LeadToxicity in Children Under-Five in a Former Used Lead-AcidBattery Area

Yana Irawati, Haryoto Kusnoputranto, Umar Fahmi Achmadi, Ahmad Safrudin, Alfred Sitorus, Rifqi Risandi, Suradi Wangsamuda, Dendi Hadi Permana, Lepa Syahrani, Farahana Kresno Dewayanti, Puji B.S. Asih, Din Syafruddin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Polymorphisms in the Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase(ALAD) gene responsible for the ALAD1and ALAD2alleles have been implicated in susceptibility tolead toxicity. This study aimed to determine the allelic frequency of ALAD2among children living in Bogor District, Indonesia, and its association with bloodlead levels (BLLs) and lead toxicity. A cross-sectional study involving 128 children was conducted during September-October 2019 in the former ULAB areain Cinangka Village. The ALADpolymorphism, BLLs, and hematological parameters were evaluated. Blood samples were taken for dried blood spotting onfilter paper, blood film, and BLL measurement. The PCR amplification and sequencing of the genomic DNA revealed the presence of two forms of the ALAD2allele: 177C and 177T with a frequency of 0.05. Analysis of the correlation between the ALAD2allele, BLLs, and basophilic stippling revealed that ALAD2carriers had a five times higher risk of high BLLs, (OR = 5.359, p-value = 0.155) and had a slightly higher risk of exhibiting basophilic stippling (OR = 1.09, p-value = 1.000). Although not statistically significant, these findings suggested that the ALADgenotype may modify BLLs and lead to toxicity. The ALAD2allele(177T) is firstly reported in any population in the world.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)66-73
Number of pages8
JournalKesmas
Volume17
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022

Keywords

  • Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase-2allele
  • Basophilic stippling
  • Blood lead level
  • Lead toxicity

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