Pyothorax-associated lymphoma (PAL) is non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that develops from chronic inflammation. Free radicals and oxidative stress generated in the inflammatory lesions could cause DNA damage and thus provide a basis for lymphomagenesis. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) genes are responsive genes for DNA damage, therefore potential involvement of these genes in PAL lymphomagenesis was examined in eight PAL cell lines and clinical samples from five cases. ATM mutations were detected in five of eight PAL lines. All but one of these mutations affected the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase domain, indicating the loss-of-function mutation of ATM gene. Heterozygous mutations of ATR were found in two of eight lines; one a missense and the other a truncation mutation. ATR mutations were also detected in two of five cases in clinical samples from PAL. PAL cells with ATR mutation showed a delay or abrogation in repair for ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) or ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs), and exhibited a defect in p53 accumulation and failure in cell cycle checkpoint at G1-S phase. These findings showed that mutations of ATR gene result in failure for DNA DSB and SSB repair, suggesting the role of ATM and ATR gene mutations in PAL lymphomagenesis.
- Cell lines
- DNA repair
- Pyothorax-associated lymphoma