Affective meaning, concreteness, and subjective frequency norms for Indonesian words

Agnes Sianipar, Pieter van Groenestijn, Ton Dijkstra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


This study investigated the lexical-semantic space organized by the semantic and affective features of Indonesian words and their relationship with gender and cultural aspects. We recruited 1,402 participants who were native speakers of Indonesian to rate affective and lexico-semantic properties of 1,490 Indonesian words. Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Predictability, Subjective Frequency, and Concreteness ratings were collected for each word from at least 52 people. We explored cultural differences between American English ANEW (affective norms for English words), Spanish ANEW, and the new Indonesian inventory [called CEFI (concreteness, emotion, and subjective frequency norms for Indonesian words)]. We found functional relationships between the affective dimensions that were similar across languages, but also cultural differences dependent on gender.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1907
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
Issue numberDEC
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • Cross-cultural study
  • Emotion
  • Indonesian
  • Rating study
  • Semantic


Dive into the research topics of 'Affective meaning, concreteness, and subjective frequency norms for Indonesian words'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this