With adequate support, people with HIV (PWH) may achieve high levels of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) during incarceration. We examined factors associated with ART utilization and adherence among incarcerated PWH (N = 150) in Indonesia. ART utilization was positively associated with HIV status disclosure (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.5, 95% CI 1.2–24.1, p = 0.023), drug dependency (aOR = 3.9, 95% CI 1.2–12.6, p = 0.022), health service satisfaction (aOR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.7–6.2, p < 0.001), and perceived need for medical treatment (aOR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.5, p = 0.011), and negatively associated with chance locus of control (aOR = 0.3, 95% CI 0.1–0.7, p = 0.013). Most participants utilizing ART (74.5%) reported less than “perfect” ART adherence. ART adherence was independently associated with perceived personal safety (β = 0.21, 95% CI 0.01–0.40, p = 0.032) and methadone utilization (β = 0.84, 95% CI 0.10–1.67, p = 0.047). PWH receiving methadone had a sixfold higher adjusted odds of being highly-adherent to ART (aOR = 6.3, 95% CI 1.1–35.7, p = 0.036). Interventions that increase methadone utilization and personal safety may improve ART adherence among incarcerated PWH.
- Antiretroviral therapy
- Substance use