Adapting clinical guidelines in low-resources countries: a study on the guideline on the management and prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Indonesia

Indah Suci Widyahening, Grace Wangge, Yolanda van der Graaf, Geert J.M.G. van der Heijden

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Rationale, aims and objectives: Most of the clinical guidelines in low-resource countries are adaptations from preexisting international guidelines. This adaptation can be problematic when those international guidelines are not based on current evidence or original evidence-based international guidelines are not followed. This study aims to evaluate the quality of an Indonesian type 2 diabetes mellitus guideline adapted from selected international guidelines. Methods: The “Consensus on the Management and Prevention of type 2 Diabetes in Indonesia 2011” is a guideline by the Indonesian Society of Endocrinology (Perkeni). Four parent guidelines identified from its list of references were from the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), American Association of Clinical Endocrinologist (AACE), American Diabetes Association (ADA), and one jointly released by ADA and European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Two reviewers independently assessed its quality using the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation Collaboration (AGREE II) instrument. Six recommendations were compared: (1) screening for diabetes; (2) diagnosis; (3) control of hyperglycemia; (4) target blood glucose; (5) target blood pressure; and (6) treatment of dyslipidemia. Results: Perkeni's guideline satisfied 55% of the AGREE II items, while its parent guidelines satisfied 59% to 74%. Perkeni's shows low score on “rigor of development” and “applicability” and the lowest score in the “scope and purpose” domain. Differences were found in 4 recommendations: the screening of diabetes, control of hyperglycemia, target blood glucose, and treatment of dyslipidemia. In 3 of 4, Perkeni followed the ADA's recommendation. Conclusion: Derivation of recommendations from parent guidelines and their adaptation to the context of Indonesian health care lacks transparency. When guidelines are either derived from other guidelines or adapted for use in different context, evidence-based practice principles should be followed and adhered to.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)121-127
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2017


  • clinical practice guidelines
  • diabetes
  • evidence-based medicine
  • guideline development
  • low-resource countries


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