Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) biomarker.

Sri Suryo Adiyanti, Tonny Loho

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

69 Citations (Scopus)


The kidney has a remarkable capacity to withstand insults for an extended period of time. The sensitivities of individual renal cells to injury vary depending on their type, position in the nephron, local vascularization, and the nature of injury. The resulting kidney injury is a product of the interplay between cell dysfunction, cell death, proliferation, inflammation, and recovery. The Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) defined Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) as "functional and structural disorder or signs of renal damage including any defect from blood and urine test, or tissue imaging that is less than 3 months". RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage Kidney Disease) criteria is the most frequently used system. Ideal biomarker for AKI should be affordable, quick and measurable, precise and accurate, with prognostic ability to define severity of renal dysfunction, specific for renal, increase in the early stage dysfunction, with high sensitivity and specificity. Efforts to detect AKI in the earlier stage has resulted in some promising biomarkers such as KIM-1, NGAL, IL-18, Clusterin, etc. Cystatin C is a biomarker for glomerular filtration function, while 2-microglobulin, 1-microglobulin, NAG, RBP, IL-18, NGAL, Netrin-1, KIM-1, Clusterin, Sodium Hydrogen Exchanger Isoform and Fetuin A are biomarkers for tubular reabsorption function.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)246-255
Number of pages10
JournalActa medica Indonesiana
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2012


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