Accuracy of artificial intelligence model for infectious keratitis classification: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Randy Sarayar, Yeni Dwi Lestari, Arnaud A.A. Setio, Ratna Sitompul

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: Infectious keratitis (IK) is a sight-threatening condition requiring immediate definite treatment. The need for prompt treatment heavily depends on timely diagnosis. The diagnosis of IK, however, is challenged by the drawbacks of the current “gold standard.” The poorly differentiated clinical features, the possibility of low microbial culture yield, and the duration for culture are the culprits of delayed IK treatment. Deep learning (DL) is a recent artificial intelligence (AI) advancement that has been demonstrated to be highly promising in making automated diagnosis in IK with high accuracy. However, its exact accuracy is not yet elucidated. This article is the first systematic review and meta-analysis that aims to assess the accuracy of available DL models to correctly classify IK based on etiology compared to the current gold standards. Methods: A systematic search was carried out in PubMed, Google Scholars, Proquest, ScienceDirect, Cochrane and Scopus. The used keywords are: “Keratitis,” “Corneal ulcer,” “Corneal diseases,” “Corneal lesions,” “Artificial intelligence,” “Deep learning,” and “Machine learning.” Studies including slit lamp photography of the cornea and validity study on DL performance were considered. The primary outcomes reviewed were the accuracy and classification capability of the AI machine learning/DL algorithm. We analyzed the extracted data with the MetaXL 5.2 Software. Results: A total of eleven articles from 2002 to 2022 were included with a total dataset of 34,070 images. All studies used convolutional neural networks (CNNs), with ResNet and DenseNet models being the most used models across studies. Most AI models outperform the human counterparts with a pooled area under the curve (AUC) of 0.851 and accuracy of 96.6% in differentiating IK vs. non-IK and pooled AUC 0.895 and accuracy of 64.38% for classifying bacterial keratitis (BK) vs. fungal keratitis (FK). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that DL algorithms have high potential in diagnosing and classifying IK with accuracy that, if not better, is comparable to trained corneal experts. However, various factors, such as the unique architecture of DL model, the problem with overfitting, image quality of the datasets, and the complex nature of IK itself, still hamper the universal applicability of DL in daily clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1239231
JournalFrontiers in Public Health
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • accuracy
  • artificial intelligence
  • deep learning
  • infectious keratitis
  • systematic review


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