A systematic review of artificial intelligence-powered (AI-powered) chatbot intervention for managing chronic illness

Moh Heri Kurniawan, Hanny Handiyani, Tuti Nuraini, Rr Tutik Sri Hariyati, Sutrisno Sutrisno

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Utilizing artificial intelligence (AI) in chatbots, especially for chronic diseases, has become increasingly prevalent. These AI-powered chatbots serve as crucial tools for enhancing patient communication, addressing the rising prevalence of chronic conditions, and meeting the growing demand for supportive healthcare applications. However, there is a notable gap in comprehensive reviews evaluating the impact of AI-powered chatbot interventions in healthcare within academic literature. This study aimed to assess user satisfaction, intervention efficacy, and the specific characteristics and AI architectures of chatbot systems designed for chronic diseases. Method: A thorough exploration of the existing literature was undertaken by employing diverse databases such as PubMed MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ACM Digital Library and Scopus. The studies incorporated in this analysis encompassed primary research that employed chatbots or other forms of AI architecture in the context of preventing, treating or rehabilitating chronic diseases. The assessment of bias risk was conducted using Risk of 2.0 Tools. Results: Seven hundred and eighty-four results were obtained, and subsequently, eight studies were found to align with the inclusion criteria. The intervention methods encompassed health education (n = 3), behaviour change theory (n = 1), stress and coping (n = 1), cognitive behavioural therapy (n = 2) and self-care behaviour (n = 1). The research provided valuable insights into the effectiveness and user-friendliness of AI-powered chatbots in handling various chronic conditions. Overall, users showed favourable acceptance of these chatbots for self-managing chronic illnesses. Conclusions: The reviewed studies suggest promising acceptance of AI-powered chatbots for self-managing chronic conditions. However, limited evidence on their efficacy due to insufficient technical documentation calls for future studies to provide detailed descriptions and prioritize patient safety. These chatbots employ natural language processing and multimodal interaction. Subsequent research should focus on evidence-based evaluations, facilitating comparisons across diverse chronic health conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2302980
JournalAnnals of Medicine
Volume56
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2024

Keywords

  • Artificial intelligence
  • chatbot
  • chronic illness
  • conversational agents

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