Kurnia Trinopiawan, Zaki Mubarok, Kurnia Setiawan Widana, Budi Yuli Ani, Yarianto Sugeng Budi Susilo, Riesna Prassanti, Iwan Susanto, Sulaksana Permana, Johny W. Soedarsono

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Bangka Tin Slag (BTS) was a tin-smelting waste containing high silica and other elements that have high economic value, including cerium, which is a rare earth element. Silica and Ce2O3 contents in BTS were 32.86 % and 1.35 % respectively. Other elements that have high concentrations in BTS include 15.46 % of CaO, 10.88 % of Al2O3, and 9.20% of Fe2O3. The objective of this study was to determine the optimum conditions for cerium extraction using HCl, which includes HCl concentration, temperature, particle size, stirring speed, and dissolution time. In addition, the effect of these parameters on Ce extraction was also studied. The one-factor-at-time method was used to determine the optimum conditions. Pretreatment of BTS with the alkaline fusion method and water leaching was done to reduce both the silica content and increasing its porosity. Alkaline fusion carried out at 700 ℃ using NaOH converts the silica into water-soluble sodium silicate. Characterization of the slag structure before and after the pretreatment process was completely carried out by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), and optical microscope. Furthermore, measurement of Ce content in the filtrate of the dissolution process was performed with inductively coupled plasma – optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The results showed that the optimum of 75.16 % Ce was extracted by using some parameter conditions, namely by 2.5 M of HCl concentration, at the temperature of 40 ℃, with the particle size of –325 mesh, stirring speed of 150 rpm, and dissolution time of 180 minutes. Each parameter gives a significant effect on Ce extraction, wherein the initial stage, the increase in the value of each parameter gives an increase in Ce extraction and begins to decrease when equilibrium occurs

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)24-30
Number of pages7
JournalEastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies
Issue number4-106
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • alkaline fusion
  • Bangka tin slag
  • cerium
  • HCl
  • optimum conditions
  • water leaching


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