A review of analytical methods for codeine determination

Rimadani Pratiwi, Eka Noviana, Rizky Fauziati, Daniel Blascke Carrão, Firas Adinda Gandhi, Mutiara Aini Majid, Febrina Amelia Saputri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Codeine is derived from morphine, an opioid analgesic, and has weaker analgesic and sedative effects than the parent molecule. This weak opioid is commonly used in combination with other drugs for over-the-counter cough relief medication. Due to the psychoactive properties of opioid drugs, the easily obtained codeine often becomes subject to misuse. Codeine misuse has emerged as a concerning public health issue due to its associated adverse effects such as headache, nausea, vomiting, and hemorrhage. Thus, it is very important to develop reliable analytical techniques to detect codeine for both quality control of pharmaceutical formulations and identifying drug misuse in the community. This review aims to provide critical outlooks on analytical methods applicable to the determination of codeine.

Original languageEnglish
Article number800
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Capillary electromigration
  • Chromatogra-phy
  • Codeine
  • Colorimetry
  • Drug analysis
  • Electrochemistry
  • Spectrophotometry


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