Comparison of breastfeeding practices from two similar surveys conducted in Jakarta, Indonesia shows an increase in breastfeeding duration from 14.4 months in 1976 to 19.8 months in 1983. This increase was predominantly among noneducated women (20.3 months among noneducated women versus 0.9 months among women with greater than elementary education). Among working women breastfeeding duration declined slightly (1.1 months). Unlike industrialized countries where increases in breastfeeding have occurred initially among the higher socioeconomic groups, recent increases in Jakarta have occurred initially among the lower socioeconomic groups. If breastfeeding practices among working or better educated women who delivered mostly in hospitals or clinics are to be improved, the breastfeeding promotion programs should be targeted to these groups.