A preliminary study on the reduction of limonite ore by using rice husk as a reducing agent

Ahmad Maksum, Michael Kelvin E. Husein, Sulaksana Permana, Andi Rustandi, Johny Wahyuadi Soedarsono

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14 Citations (Scopus)


The abundant of rice husk in Indonesia has encouraged researchers to study the feasibility of rice husk for substituting material that is more expensive or dangerous. In previous study, silica with a purity of 99.9% has been obtained from rice husk with calcinations process. Nevertheless, the gases resulting from the process were not used and left useless. Therefore, in this study, those gases derived from rice husk calcinations process were used as reducing agents during the ferronickel (Fe-Ni) production through a direct reduction process. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the amount of rice husk in the pellets on the increase of nickel content in the limonite reduction process. The limonite ore were crushed to the size of less than 150 mesh using disc-mill, and then were mixed with rice husk powder (10, 20, 30 in wt % mass) before being pelletized using bentonite as a binder. The resulted pellets were roasted at 500°C for 60 minutes and then quenched in water media. After drying process, the reduction process of 40g pellets was conducted at 1000°C for 90 minutes with 20g rice husk in furnace. The effects of additional rice husk on the direct reduction of limonite ore pellets were qualitatively analyzed by using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and quantitatively by Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Both analysis results showed that the reduction process followed the reaction scheme: Fe2O3→Fe3O4→FeO and NiO phase was detected in the sample with 20% rice husk addition. The optimum concentration of Ni 1.23% was obtained for 20% rice husk addition.

Original languageEnglish
Article number012050
JournalIOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 28 Mar 2018
Event15th International Conference on Quality in Research, QiR 2017 - Nusa Dua, Bali, Indonesia
Duration: 24 Jul 201727 Jul 2017


  • Direct reduction
  • Ferronickel
  • Limonite
  • Quenching
  • Rice husk


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