A preliminary study of the physico-chemical parameters and potential pollutant sources in Urban Lake Rawa Besar, Depok, Indonesia

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Lake Rawa Besar is an urban lake surrounded by dense settlements and commercial areas that are currently experiencing physical and ecological pressures due to uncontrolled land-use change around the lake. Therefore, this preliminary study aimed to investigate the sustainable management of the lake in order to create a recreational destination area. It was carried out by ascertaining the lake water quality status through the analysis of the physical and chemical parameters and identifying the potential pollutant sources due to land use and human activities. The physical parameters include TDS, TSS, Turbidity, while the chemical parameters include Nitrate-N, Total Phosphate-P, and BOD. Furthermore, field surveys on 30 water samples were conducted once at noon and statistical analysis was used to ascertain the correlation between the physical and chemical parameters. Finally, Geographic Information System (GIS) tools were used to investigate the spatial distribution of the Physico-chemical parameters and the potential pollutant sources. The results showed that based on the six parameters of the water quality status, the lake was lightly polluted. It also showed that three parameters such as Turbidity, BOD, and TSS exceed the permissible limit with 93.3, 66.7, 43.7% of the total samples, respectively. Additionally, a strong correlation existed between BOD and Turbidity with r=0.95, while a medium correlation existed between Nitrate-N and Phosphate-P with r=0.40. The spatial distribution of the concentration of the physico-chemical parameters generally had a varied pattern, however, Turbidity and BOD had a similar pattern, especially in the bank areas. Finally, domestic and organic wastes were indicated as pollutant sources, which increased eutrophication in the lake.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)236-244
Number of pages9
JournalIndonesian Journal of Geography
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Depok
  • Lake Rawa Besar
  • Land use
  • Physico-chemical parameters
  • Pollutant sources
  • Spatial distribution
  • Water quality
  • West Java


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