In this study, an environmentally friendly extraction method for flavonoid compound from Ixora javanica, as a new raw material candidate for herbal medicine and cosmetics, was developed. The objectives of the present work were to provide recommendations for the optimal extraction conditions and to investigate the effects of any extraction parameters on flavonoid yields from the I. javanica flower. The extraction process was performed using deep eutectic solvent (DES) (choline chloride and propylene glycol at molar ratio of 1: 1) and the ultrasound-assisted extraction method. Both single-factor and response surface analyses using three-level and three-factor Box Behnken designs were conducted to obtain the optimum flavonoid concentrations. The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions for total flavonoids featured an extraction time of 40 min, 25% water content in DES and a solid-to-liquid ratio of 1: 25 g ml -1. An extract obtained under optimum extraction conditions showed higher total flavonoid yields than an ethanolic extract which was used for comparison. Scanning electron microscope images demonstrated that both of the solvents also showed different effects on the outer surface of the I. javanica flower during the extraction process. In summary, our work succeeded in determining the optimum conditions for total flavonoids in the I. javanica flower using a green extraction method.
- deep eutectic solvent
- Ixora javanica
- response surface methodology
- ultrasound-assisted extraction