A Four-Step Method for the Development of an ADHD-VR Digital Game Diagnostic Tool Prototype for Children Using a DL Model

Tjhin Wiguna, Ngurah Agung Wigantara, Raden Irawati Ismail, Fransiska Kaligis, Kusuma Minayati, Raymond Bahana, Bayu Dirgantoro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder among children resulting in disturbances in their daily functioning. Virtual reality (VR) and machine learning technologies, such as deep learning (DL) application, are promising diagnostic tools for ADHD in the near future because VR provides stimuli to replace real stimuli and recreate experiences with high realism. It also creates a playful virtual environment and reduces stress in children. The DL model is a subset of machine learning that can transform input and output data into diagnostic values using convolutional neural network systems. By using a sensitive and specific ADHD-VR diagnostic tool prototype for children with DL model, ADHD can be diagnosed more easily and accurately, especially in places with few mental health resources or where tele-consultation is possible. To date, several virtual reality-continuous performance test (VR-CPT) diagnostic tools have been developed for ADHD; however, they do not include a machine learning or deep learning application. A diagnostic tool development study needs a trustworthy and applicable study design and conduct to ensure the completeness and transparency of the report of the accuracy of the diagnostic tool. The proposed four-step method is a mixed-method research design that combines qualitative and quantitative approaches to reduce bias and collect essential information to ensure the trustworthiness and relevance of the study findings. Therefore, this study aimed to present a brief review of a ADHD-VR digital game diagnostic tool prototype with a DL model for children and the proposed four-step method for its development.

Original languageEnglish
Article number829
JournalFrontiers in Psychiatry
Publication statusPublished - 17 Aug 2020


  • attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
  • diagnostic tool
  • digital game
  • Indonesia
  • machine learning
  • neuropsychological test
  • virtual reality


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