A comprehensive data and information on low to medium temperature geothermal resources in Indonesia: a review

Lia Putriyana, Yunus Daud, Bidyut Baran Saha, N. Nasruddin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Abstract: The aim of this study is to provide comprehensive and update information concerning the utilization of low- and medium-temperature geothermal resources in Indonesia. This study includes several utilization technologies and identifies opportunities, challenges, and issues. Furthermore, to emphasize the promising potency of these potentials by gaining a good understanding of the characteristic of low- and medium-temperature resources. A number of low- and medium-temperature fields are widely spread over 254 of the total 357 geothermal potencies. The distribution of low- and medium-temperature by location majority in Sulawesi island is about 85 of 254 locations. The distribution of these potencies by the amount of resources majority in Sumatera island, it is about 3419 MWe of total 9670 MWe calculated resources. Unfortunately, the utilization of low to medium-temperature geothermal resources has not been investigated; most of the works focus on high-temperature geothermal resources. Insufficient data and information regarding the potential of low- and medium-temperature resources lead to under-utilization. In order to boost further development of low- and medium-temperature, detailed studies should be started. There are little information and data on low- and medium-temperature, even though these potencies have a wide range application, which could be developed both direct and indirect use. Identifying the most promising area of these potencies will helps in focusing the prospects to be developed. The perspective must be changed that high-temperature prospects are no longer a high priority to be developed; there are low- and medium-temperature geothermal resources that potentially benefit. Comprehensive data and information regarding these potencies are considering as a part of the solution in geothermal development in Indonesia. In addition, understanding the characteristics of a low- and medium-temperature system will afford the information regarding its geothermal systems. Article highlights: A deep review of possible applications both direct- and indirect-use is necessary to commercially exploiting the geothermal potentialUtilization of low- and medium-temperature geothermal resources for various purposes of direct usesGeothermal development is greatly dependent on investor/developer attraction both of the prospects and the policy including the tariff

Original languageEnglish
Article number58
JournalGeomechanics and Geophysics for Geo-Energy and Geo-Resources
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2022


  • Geothermal resource
  • Low-medium temperature resources
  • Polygeneration
  • Utilization


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